TYPES OF INDIAN MUSIC
Types of Indian Music includes multiple varieties of Punjabi Music, classical music, folk music, filmi, Indian rock, and Indian pop. India‘s classical music tradition, including Hindustani music and Carnatic, has a history spanning millennia and developed over several areas. Music in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life.
India is a country known for its unity in diversity and different types of indian music styles. India is made up of innumerable and varied cultures that inhabit various regions of the country. In every region of the India, there is different type of indian music which makes it different from other countries. Though this country is made up of Twenty Nine States, each one having its own mother tongue, culture, traditions, types of indian music styles and art forms, these states have varied regional cultures. Every region has its own unique art forms, Hindi Shayri, poetry, prose, handicrafts, paintings, etc. But let’s start with the history of indian music:
The 30,000 years old paleolithic and neolithic cave paintings at the UNESCO world heritage site at Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh shows music instruments and dance. Mesolithic and chalcolithic cave art of Bhimbhetka illustrates various musical instruments such as harp, drums, gongs, daf etc.
Dancing Girl sculpture (2500 BCE) was found from the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) site. There are IVC-era paintings on pottery of a man with a dhol hanging from his neck and a woman holding a drum under her left arm.
Vedas (c. 1500 – c. 800 BCE Vedic period) document rituals with performing arts and play. For example, Shatapatha Brahmana (~800–700 BCE) has verses in chapter 13.2 written in the form of a play between two actors. Tala or taal is an ancient music concept traceable to Vedic era texts of Hinduism, such as the Samaveda and methods for singing the Vedic hymns. Smriti (500 BCE to 100 BCE ) post-vedic Hindu texts include Valmiki’s Ramayana (500 BCE to 100 BCE) which mentions dance and music (dance by Apsaras such as Urvashi, Rambha, Menaka, Tilottama Panchāpsaras, and Ravana’s wives excelling in nrityageeta or “singing and dancing” and nritavaditra or “playing musical instruments”), music and singing by Gandharvas, several string instruments, raga vocal registers, poetry recitation in Bala Kanda and also in Uttara Kanda by Luv and Kusha in marga style.
Under the Khiljis, there were concerts and competitions between Hindustani and Carnatic musicians. Madhava Kandali, 14th century Assamese poet and writer of Saptakanda Ramayana, lists several instruments in his version of “Ramayana”, such as mardala, khumuchi, bhemachi, dagar, gratal, ramtal, tabal, jhajhar, jinjiri, bheri mahari, tokari, dosari, kendara, dotara, vina, rudra-vipanchi, etc. (meaning that these instruments existed since his time in 14th century or earlier). The Indian system of notation is perhaps the world’s oldest and most elaborate.
While there are many types of indian music styles but Indian classical music has been broadly divided into the north Indian tradition also known as Hindustani music and the Carnatic music belonging to south India. What differentiates the two is their arrangement and performance.
Apart from the above mentioned broad based categories, there are varied types of Indian music. The fact is that many associate all Indian music compositions of the eras gone by to be classical, however there are other entertaining and purposeful ones that have come down the ages.
So, let’s start with the list of types of indian music:
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical(religious) and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods.
The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period. Indian classical music continues to gain tremendously in popularity in the West and is now taught widely. In addition to many opportunities to learn it at universities or in specialized instruction, more general resources are appearing.
The convention of Hindustani music goes back to Vedic occasions where the hymns in the Sama Veda, an old religious content, were sung as Samagana and not recited. It separated from Carnatic music around the thirteenth fourteenth hundreds of years CE, principally because of Islamic influences. Developing a solid and various custom more than a few centuries, it has contemporary conventions set up essentially in India yet in addition in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
As opposed to Carnatic music, the other primary Indian old style music convention starting from the South, Hindustani music was not just affected by antiquated Hindu melodic customs, chronicled Vedic way of thinking and local Indian sounds yet additionally improved by the Persian execution practices of the Mughals. Traditional classifications are dhrupad, dhamar, khyal, tarana and sadra, and there are additionally a few semi-old style structures.
Carnatic music can be followed to the fourteenth – fifteenth hundreds of years AD and from that point. It began in South India during the standard of the Vijayanagar Empire. Like Hindustani music, it is melodic, with ad libbed varieties, however will in general have progressively fixed sytheses.
Around 300 ragams are being used today. Annamayya is the principal known author in Carnatic music. He is generally viewed as the Andhra Pada kavitā Pitāmaha (Godfather of Telugu melody composing). Purandara Dasa is viewed as the dad of Carnatic music, while the later artists Tyagaraja, Shyama Shastry, and Muthuswami Dikshitar are viewed as the trinity of Carnatic music.
Music has always been an important aspect in the lives of Indian people. India’s rich cultural diversity has greatly contributed to various forms of folk music. Almost every region in India has its own folk music, which reflects the way of life. From the peppy bhangra of Punjab to Garba of Gujarat to Bhavageete of Karnataka, the tradition of folk music in India is indeed great.
Folk music is closely associated with farming and other such professions and evolved to alleviate the hardship and break the monotony of the routine life. Even though folk music lost its popularity with the advent of contemporary music like pop and rap, but no traditional festival or celebration is complete without folk music.
BHANGRA AND GIDDHA
Bhangra is a type of move situated people music of Punjab. The present melodic style is gotten from non-conventional melodic backup to the riffs of Punjab called by a similar name. The female move of Punjab district is known as Giddha.
BIHU OF ASSAM
Bihu is the celebration of New Year of Assam falling in mid-April. This is a celebration of nature and mother earth where the main day is for the dairy animals and wild oxen. The second day of the celebration is for the man. Bihu moves and melodies joined by conventional drums and wind instruments are a basic piece of this celebration. Bihu tunes are enthusiastic and with beats to respect the happy spring.
Dandiya or Raas is a type of Gujarati social move that is performed with sticks. The present melodic style is gotten from the conventional melodic backup to the people move. It is rehearsed essentially in the territory of Gujarat. There is likewise another kind of move and music related with Dandiya/Raas called Garba.
JHUMAIR AND DOMKACH
Jhumair and Domkach are Nagpuri society music. The melodic instruments utilized in people music and move are Dhol, Mandar, Bansi, Nagara, Dhak, Shehnai, Khartal, Narsinga and so forth.
Lavani originates from the word Lavanya which signifies “excellence”. This is one of the most well known types of move and music that is rehearsed all over Maharashtra. It has, truth be told, turned into an important piece of the Maharashtrian people move exhibitions. Customarily, the tunes are sung by female specialists, yet male craftsmen may at times sing Lavanis.
The move configuration related with Lavani is known as Tamasha. Lavani is a mix of customary tune and move, which especially performed to the captivating thumps of ‘Dholaki’, a drum-like instrument. The move is performed by appealing ladies wearing nine-yard saris. They are sung in a fast beat. Lavani started in the bone-dry district of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
Rajasthan has a differing social gathering of artist ranks, including Langas, Sapera, Bhopa, Jogi and Manganiyar (lit. “the ones who ask/ask”). Rajasthan Diary cites it as a deep, full-throated music with agreeable decent variety.
The songs of Rajasthan originate from an assortment of instruments. The stringed assortment incorporates the Sarangi, Ravanahatha, Kamayacha, Morsing and Ektara. Percussion instruments come in all shapes and sizes from the colossal Nagaras and Dhols to the small Damrus.
Sufi people shake contains components of present day hard shake and conventional society music with Sufi verse. While it was spearheaded by groups like Junoon in Pakistan it turned out to be famous, particularly in north India. In 2005, Rabbi Shergill discharged a Sufi shake tune called “Bulla Ki Jaana”, which turned into a diagram topper in India and Pakistan. All the more as of late, the sufi society shake tune “Bulleya” from the 2016 film Ae Dil Hai Mushkil turned into a mammoth hit.
Uttarakhandi people music had its root in the lap of nature and the uneven landscape of the locale. Basic topics in the society music of Uttarakhand are the magnificence of nature, different seasons, celebrations, religious conventions, social practices, people stories, authentic characters, and the fortitude of predecessors.
The society melodies of Uttarakhand are an impression of the social legacy and the manner in which individuals live their lives in the Himalayas. Melodic instruments utilized in Uttarakhand music incorporate the Dhol, Damoun, Hudka, Turri, Ransingha, Dholki, Daur, Thali, Bhankora and Masakbhaja.
The greatest type of Indian prominent music is filmi or tunes from Indian movies, it makes up 72% of the music deals in India.
The film business of India bolstered music by concurring respect to old-style music while using western coordination to help Indian tunes. Music authors, similar to R. D. Burman, Shankar Jaikishan, S. D. Burman, Madan Mohan, Bhupen Hazarika, Naushad Ali, O. P. Nayyar, Hemant Kumar, C. Ramchandra, Salil Chowdhury, Kalyanji Anandji, Ilaiyaraaja, A. R. Rahman, Jatin Lalit, Anu Malik, Nadeem-Shravan, Harris Jayaraj, Himesh Reshammiya, Vidyasagar, Shankar Ehsaan Loy, Salim-Sulaiman, Pritam, M.S. Viswanathan, K. V.
Mahadevan, Ghantasala and S. D. Batish utilized the standards of concordance while holding an old-style and people season. Rumored names in the space of Indian traditional music like Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, Ali Akbar Khan, and Ram Narayan have likewise made music for movies.
Customarily, in Indian movies, the voice for the tunes isn’t given by the on-screen characters, they are given by the expert playback vocalists, to sound increasingly created, musical and deep, while entertainers lipsynch on the screen. Before, just a bunch of vocalists gave the voice in Hindi movies. These incorporate Kishore Kumar, K. J. Yesudas, Mohammed Rafi, Mukesh, S.P. Balasubrahmanyam, T.M. Soundararajan, Hemant Kumar, Manna Dey, P.
Susheela, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhonsle, K.S. Chitra, Geeta Dutt, S. Janaki, Shamshad Begum, Suraiya, Noorjahan and Suman Kalyanpur. Late playback artists incorporate Udit Narayan, Kumar Sanu, Kailash Kher, Alisha Chinai, KK, Shaan, Madhushree, Shreya Ghoshal, Nihira Joshi, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Hariharan (vocalist), Ilaiyaraaja, A.R. Rahman, Sonu Nigam, Sukhwinder Singh, Kunal Ganjawala, Anu Malik, Sunidhi Chauhan, Anushka Manchanda, Raja Hasan, Arijit Singh and Alka Yagnik. Musical gangs like Indus Creed, Indian Ocean, Silk Route and Euphoria have increased mass intrigue with the coming of link music TV.
INDIAN POP MUSIC
Indian popular music depends on an amalgamation of Indian society and old-style music, and present-day beats from various pieces of the world. Popular music truly began in the South Asian area with the playback artist Ahmed Rushdi’s melody ‘Ko Korina’ in 1966, pursued at first by Mohammad Rafi in the late 1960s and after that by Kishore Kumar in the mid-1970s.
From that point onward, quite a bit of Indian Pop music originates from the Indian Film Industry, and until the 1990s, a couple of artists like Usha Uthup, Sharon Prabhakar, and Peenaz Masani outside it were well known.
From that point forward, pop artists in the last gathering have included Daler Mehndi, Baba Sehgal, Alisha Chinai, KK, Shantanu Mukherjee a.k.a. Shaan, Sagarika, Colonial Cousins (Hariharan, Leslie Lewis), Lucky Ali, and Sonu Nigam, and music writers like Zila Khan or Jawahar Wattal, who made top-selling collections with, Daler Mehndi, Shubha Mudgal, Baba Sehgal, Shweta Shetty, and Hans Raj Hans.